What Are the Risk Factors of TMJ Disorder?

TMJ Disorders are health concerns related to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which connects your jaw to your skull’s temporal bones. These disorders can cause pain in your jaw joint and surrounding muscles. However, the specific causes of TMJ disorders are often difficult to determine, as pain can arise from the muscles of the jaw area, a displaced disc, or the joint itself.

A Look at the Risk Factors of TMJ Disorders

Certain factors increase the likelihood of developing TMJ disorders. These risk factors do not guarantee you will develop the disorder, but they can increase your chances.

1. Sex and Age

As you mentioned, women are more commonly affected by TMJ disorders, particularly those in their childbearing years. While the exact reason for this gender disparity is not fully understood, hormonal factors and differences in pain perception may contribute. However, TMJ disorders can affect people of any sex and age, and it’s essential to be aware of the potential risk regardless of these factors.

2. Genetic Factors

Genetic predisposition can play a role in the development of TMJ disorders. Suppose a parent or a close family member has experienced TMJ issues. In that case, there might be an increased likelihood of developing the disorder due to inherited traits that affect jaw structure and function.

3. Hormonal Factors

Hormonal changes, especially those related to female reproductive cycles like pregnancy and menopause, can impact the muscles and ligaments surrounding the jaw joint. Fluctuations in hormones might exacerbate existing TMJ symptoms or contribute to their onset.

4. Other Health Conditions

Certain health conditions, particularly chronic pain, and inflammation, can increase the risk of TMJ disorders. Conditions like fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and various forms of arthritis might contribute to jaw joint discomfort and dysfunction.

5. Oral Habits and Injuries

  • Teeth Grinding (Bruxism): Teeth grinding or clenching, often as a response to stress or during sleep, can strain the jaw joint and surrounding muscles. Over time, this excessive pressure can contribute to developing TMJ disorders and destroying strong dental crowns. Wearing a dental appliance like a nightguard can help protect the teeth and alleviate strain on the joint.
  • Jaw Injury: Trauma to the jaw, whether due to accidents, falls, or other injuries, can lead to misalignment of the jaw joint. This misalignment can disrupt the normal functioning of the joint and contribute to TMJ symptoms.
  • Chronic Jaw Clenching: Persistent jaw clenching, which can result from stress, anxiety, or concentration, can lead to muscle fatigue and strain on the jaw joint. This chronic tension can contribute to the development of TMJ disorders.
  • Poor Posture: Posture affects the alignment of various body parts, including the jaw. Poor neck and upper back posture can strain the muscles and ligaments surrounding the jaw joint. Over time, this strain can contribute to TMJ symptoms.

It’s important to note that while these risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing TMJ disorders, they don’t guarantee that an individual will experience them.

Steps Towards Healthier TMJ

Seeking professional advice and specialized treatment for TMJ disorders is essential for effectively managing and improving your jaw joint health. Let’s take a closer look at the steps you can take toward a healthier TMJ:

1. Early Detection and Professional Evaluation

If you experience symptoms such as jaw pain, clicking or popping sounds, limited mouth movement, or headaches, seeking a professional evaluation is important. A dentist or oral healthcare provider experienced in treating TMJ disorders can assess your condition, diagnose the issue, and recommend appropriate treatment.

2. Customized Treatment Plans

A specialized dentist can create a personalized treatment plan based on your specific symptoms and needs. Treatment plans may include combining techniques to alleviate pain, restore proper jaw function, and prevent further complications.

3. Conservative Approaches

Many TMJ cases respond well to conservative treatments. These may include:

  • Lifestyle modifications: Stress management techniques, relaxation exercises, and posture improvement.
  • Physical therapy: Gentle jaw exercises and stretches to improve jaw mobility and reduce muscle tension.
  • Dental appliances: Custom-fitted oral appliances like nightguards or splints to protect teeth from grinding and provide proper jaw alignment.

4. Professional Treatments: 

Dentists with expertise in professional TMJ treatment can provide specialized treatments that address the condition’s root causes. Some of these treatments include:

  • Occlusal adjustments: Aligning the teeth to improve bite and reduce strain on the jaw joint.
  • Trigger point injections: Inject pain-relieving medications into specific jaw muscles to alleviate muscle tension and pain.
  • Botox injections: Injections into the jaw muscles to relax tension and alleviate pain.
  • Orthodontic treatment: Aligning teeth and correcting bite issues to alleviate TMJ symptoms.

5. Medication

For some cases, over-the-counter pain relievers or prescription medications may be recommended to manage pain and inflammation associated with TMJ disorders.

6. Surgery (in severe cases)

Surgery is usually considered a last resort for severe and unresponsive cases of TMJ disorders. Procedures may involve correcting structural issues, removing damaged tissue, or realigning the jaw joint.

7. Long-Term Management

After successful treatment, maintaining a healthy jaw joint requires continued awareness and preventive measures. Regular dental check-ups and adhering to your dental professional’s recommendations can help prevent recurrence.

The Role of Oral Health

Maintaining oral hygiene is good for your teeth and TMJ. Regular brushing, flossing, and check-ups, along with professional treatments, preserve the health of your teeth and gums, thus discouraging the progression of TMJ disorders. In the same context, the aesthetic part of oral healthcare, such as teeth whitening, should not be neglected. Services like professional whitening treatment in Boca Raton offer high-quality teeth whitening that boosts your confidence and oral health.


Understanding the risk factors of TMJ disorders empowers individuals to take proactive steps in their oral health. From maintaining a good oral hygiene regimen to addressing bad habits, each proactive step can help prevent the onset of TMJ disorders. Remembering the importance of regular check-ups and professional oral healthcare is crucial, as a consistent dental care routine can help prevent a wide range of health issues, including TMJ disorders.